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# Transistor static characteristics

STATIC CHARACTERISTICS OF TRANSISTOR OBJECTIVE OBSERVATION Circuit Diagram Practice Procedure Input Characteristics 1. Keeping the output voltage constant (V CE = constant), vary the input voltage and note down the corresponding V BE voltage and I B current. 2. Repeat the above step for different values of V CE. 3. Plot the graph: I B against V B Transistor characteristics: 1) Input characteristics Keeping the collector- emitter (V CE) voltage constant, the base- emitter (V BE) voltage is increased from 0 and the corresponding base current (I B) values are noted. This is repeated for increasing values of V CE Transistor characteristics and approximation . Transistor Static Characteristics: There are the curves which represents relationship between different d.c. currents and voltages of a transistor. The three important characteristics of a transistor are: 1. Input characteristic, 2. Output characteristic, 3. Constant-current transfer characteristic Transistor Characteristics In physics, the graph representing the relationships between the current and the voltage of any transistor of any configuration is called Transistor Characteristics. Any two-port network which is analogous to transistor configuration circuits can be analyzed using three types of characteristic curves For example, the static characteristics of the Toshiba npn power Bipolar Junction Transistor, 2SC5198 are mentioned in the table of maximum ratings, and are collector-base voltage, collector-emitter voltage, emitter-base voltage, collector and base current and power dissipation characteristics

Transistor Characteristics is the basis that represents the relationship between the electric current and electric voltage of a circuit. Basically there are three types of transistor characteristic-curves based on the configuration of the circuit This post gives an introduction into static induction transistors. Static induction devices (SID) are transistors operating with a prepunch-through region. These devices feature outstanding operating characteristics, with frequencies up to 1THz, and have great switching speed, low switching energy, large reverse voltage and low forward voltage drop

Common-emitter characteristic curves show how a particular transistor type will react to variations in collector-emitter voltage, collector current and base current. Once these variations are known, it is possible to develop a complete picture of how well a transistor will operate in a given amplifier design In this article, we'll discuss MOSFET characteristics related to transient conditions and switch-mode operation. In the previous article on low-frequency MOSFETs, we looked at parameters—such as threshold voltage, on-state resistance, and maximum drain current—that govern a MOSFET's steady-state operation.These properties are relevant to all applications, and if you're designing a.

Transistor Characteristics are the plots which represent the relationships between the current and the voltages of a transistor in a particular configuration. By considering the transistor configuration circuits to be analogous to two-port networks, they can be analyzed using the characteristic-curves which can be of the following type Each method of connection responding differently to its input signal within a circuit as the static characteristics of the transistor vary with each circuit arrangement. Common Base Configuration - has Voltage Gain but no Current Gain. Common Emitter Configuration - has both Current and Voltage Gain Static Induction Transistor It is a device that has three terminals, with high power and frequency which is vertically oriented. The main advantage of the static induction transistor is that it has a higher voltage breakdown in comparison with FET- field-effect transistor. The following are the characteristics of static induction transistor The static I-V characteristics or output characteristics of IGBE is the graph between the collector current (I C) and the collector-emitter voltage (V CE) plotted for various values of gate-emitter voltage. The forward output characteristics is similar to that of BJT. The voltage V RM is the maximum reverse breakdown voltage

### Transistor characteristics (Theory) : Class 12 : Physics

The static input characteristic curves for CE silicon transistor are similar to those in figure (5). However, the curves break away from zero current in the range of 0.5 to 0.6 volt instead of 0.1 to 0.2 volt as in the case of Ge transistor. The dynamic input resistance | Common Emitter Configuration of PNP Transistor The behaviour of a transistor can be represented by d.c. current-voltage (I-V) curves, called the static characteristic curves of the device. The three important characteristics of a transistor are: (i) Input characteristics, (ii) Output characteristics and (iii) Transfer Characteristics Static Characteristics of Transistor in Common Emitter Mode: The know-how of certain parameters like the input resistance, output resistance, and current gain of a transistor are very important for the effective use of transistors in circuits. The circuit to study the static characteristics of an NPN transistor in the common emitter mode is.

static characteristic of an avalanche transistor is calculated. For the sake of simplicity, only an NPN device is considered: however, the same results are valid for PNP devices only changing signs to voltages and currents accordingly. The analysis closely follows that of William D. Roehr in (Roehr 1963) Static characteristics of digital combinational logic circuits and Schmitt triggers based on two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have been systematically explored. Selenide tungsten (WSe 2) transistors act as the P type metal oxide semiconductor (PMOS) A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power. Transistors are one of the basic building blocks of modern electronics. It is composed of semiconductor material usually with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit

### Transistors Characteristics - For CB, CE and CC Transistor

Static Characteristics of a Thyristor Thyristors are semiconductor devices that can operate only in the switching mode. Thyristor are current operated devices, a small Gate current controls a larger Anode current. Conducts current only when forward biased and triggering current applied to the Gate Transistor - Characteristics Watch More Videos at: https://www.tutorialspoint.com/videotutorials/index.htm Lecture By: Mr. Pradeep Kshetrapal, Tutorials Poin.. Using LTSpice to create the characteristic curves of a bipolar transistor (BJT).Post:http://wp.me/p1us83-slSite: alexkaltsas.wordpress.co The aim of this experiment is to design and plot the static (VTC) and dynamic characteristics of a digital CMOS inverter.. Introduction . The inverter is universally accepted as the most basic logic gate doing a Boolean operation on a single input variable. Fig.1 depicts the symbol, truth table and a general structure of a CMOS inverter Similarly, static output characteristic curves may be used to determine h fe and h oe using Equations 7(c) and 7(d) respectively. Variation of transistor h-parameters All the four h-parameters for any transistor configuration, namely CE, CB and CC, vary with variation of collecto0r current I C and collector junction temperature

JFET Static Characteristics. The static or common source-drain characteristics of a JFET are the graphical representation of drain current ( ID ) responding to the change in the drain-to-source voltage ( VGS ), when gate-to-source voltage is kept constant. Set of static characteristics of N channel JFET is shown in the figure CHARACTERISTICS OF JFETS. There are two types of static characteristics viz. (1) Output or drain characteristic and. (2) Transfer characteristic. You may also like to read : Field Effect Transistors (FET) and JFET-Junction Field Effect Transistors. 1. Output or Drain Characteristic. The curve drawn between drain current Ip and drain-source.

### Power BJT - static characteristics - Student Circui

1. Each method of connection respond differently to its input signal within a circuit as the static characteristics of the transistor vary with each circuit arrangement. Common Base Connection In the common base configuration, the input is applied between emitter and base and output is taken between base and collector
2. als for connection to an external circuit
3. Output characteristics : A graph between collector current I c and collector-emitter voltage V C E gives output characteristics of a transistor. For zero base current, i.e. for I B = 0 ,as V C E is increased, a small leakage (collector) current exists as shown in Fig.1 (c). As the base current is increased from I B = 0 to I B 1, I B 2 etc.
4. It is established experimentally that the I-V characteristics of a static induction transistor (SIT) and their temperature dependence are consistent with a major current transport mechanism of majority-carrier injection control plus the effect of series channel resistance. The I-V characteristics follow an exponential behavior in the low-current region and change to approximately a linear-or.
5. The static induction transfer shows the barrier‐temperature‐limited operation and exhibits vacuum‐triode‐type output characteristics. The potential profile defining the device characteristics possesses a potential barrier and it rearranges itself due to negative feedback by a change in gate or drain voltage. The nonexistance of a potential barrier leads to space‐charge‐limited.

The transistor characteristics are useful in amplifier design as well as understanding how transistors operate. The data below were collected for the example of a npn 2N36443 transistor using the circuit below. (You will be using a 2N2222 transistor so your data will be different.) ElectronicsLab14.nb Unipolar Transistors static characteristics measurement N MOS - type BS 107 or JFET - type 2SK170 1. Unipolar Transistor Task: Table : Transistor characteristics measurement : for Transistor BS 107 - set the values in such a one range - round about uGS = +2V, (fo Characteristic of Instrument: Static and Dynamic [With PDF] Measuring instruments are the device which indicates the measured quantity into a broadly displayed information. A measuring instrument can directly show the measured value or it can show the equivalent value to known measure value of the same quantity Characteristics of Common emitter (CE) Configuration. The characteristic of the common emitter transistor circuit is shown in the figure below. The base to emitter voltage varies by adjusting the potentiometer R 1. And the collector to emitter voltage varied by adjusting the potentiometer R 2. For the various setting, the current and voltage. The table which gives the main characteristics of a transistor in the three configurations is given above. The BJT transistors have mainly three types of configurations. They are common-emitter, common-base and common-collector configurations. Among all these three configurations common-emitter configuration is mostly used type

### Characteristics of a Transistor - Input, Output and

• characteristics have the same appearance, but with a scaled current of I 0/β. Finally, the curves for a pnp transistor will look the same, but the polarity on the base-emitter voltage will be switched (v BE becomes -v BE=v EB). The second set of characteristics we're going to be interested in is illustrated to the right as a family of i C-
• Introduction. This article will mainly introduce what exactly a transistor is and its detailed characteristics and functions. A transistor is a kind of solid semiconductor device, which has many functions, such as detecting, rectifying, amplifying, switching, voltage stabilizing, signal modulating and so on
• TRANSISTOR CHARACTERISTICS. To get the maximum value from a transistor, the user must understand both its static (DC) and dynamic (AC) characteristics. Figure 5 shows the static equivalent circuits of npn and pnp transistors. FIGURE 5. Static equivalent circuits of npn and pnp transistors

### Introduction into static induction transisto

Power bipolar transistors, power metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs), and insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) will be covered in details. The understanding of their physical structure, their static and dynamic characteristics, their switching features, and some applications of them are presented Static and dynamic characteristics are investigated and graphed alongside extracting the main device static parameters that well-describe the device behavior. junction field-effect transistor.

### Choosing the Right Transistor: Understanding Dynamic

The circuit diagram for determining the static characteristics under common emitter configu­ration of a P-N-P junction transistor is shown in Fig. 1.39. It is seen that a forward bias is applied to the emitter junction while a reverse bias to the collector junction Static Characteristics of the Ferroelectric Transistor Inverter The inverter is one of the most fundamental building blocks of digital logic, and it can be used as the foundation for understanding more complex logic gates and circuits. This paper presents the characteristics of an inverter circuit using a ferroelectric field-effect transistor STATIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FERROELECTRIC TRANSISTOR INVERTER Cody Mitchell1, Crystal Laws1, Todd C. MacLeod2, Fat D. Ho1 1The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Huntsville, Alabama 35899, USA 2National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama 35812, US

### Transistor Characteristics Electrical4

• Abstract: It is established experimentally that the I-V characteristics of a static induction transistor (SIT) and their temperature dependence are consistent with a major current transport mechanism of majority-carrier injection control plus the effect of series channel resistance. The I-V characteristics follow an exponential behavior in the low-current region and change to approximately a.
• als for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one.
• Static and Switching Characteristics of 1200 V SiC Junction Transistors with On-chip Integrated Schottky Rectifiers Siddarth Sundaresan, Stoyan Jeliazkov, Hany Issa, Brian Grummel, Ranbir Singh GeneSiC Semiconductor, Inc. 43670 Trade Center Pl, Suite 155 Dulles VA 20166, USA Email: siddarth.sundaresan@genesicsemi.co
• The input characteristics of a PNP transistor are just like the characteristics of a forward-biased diode when the collector of the transistor is short-circuited to the emitter and the emitter is forward biased.. When ‎V BE = 0, ‎I B = 0 because in this case both the junction i.e. emitter-base junction and collector-base junction are short-circuited. . As the value of ‎V CE increases.
• The static characteristic (DC) of an NPN bipolar transistor is obtained with the following circuit: Here is the SPICE definition of this circuit: The .INCLUDE command is used to include the file in which the definition of model 2n2222a is located. We start by plotting the curve ib = f (Vbe) for Vce = 1 V and Vce = 0 V
• APPLICATION NOTE 4/15 3 THE BIPOLAR TRANSISTOR see figure 6. 3.1 Current The current capability is defined by: VCE(sat) < 1.5V @ IC = IC(sat) IB= IB(sat) If IC < IC(sat), the voltage drop V CE is proportional to it, and can be very small. If IC > IC(sat), VCE remains relatively constant with changing I C, and so the transistor can be considered as a current source
• Electrical characteristics of MOSFETs (Static Characteristics I GSS /I DSS /V (BR)DSS /V (BR)DXS) Gate leakage current (I GSS ) The leakage current that occurs when the specified voltage is applied across gate and source with drain and source short-circuite

The static characteristics, such as on-state resistance (Ron) in the first and third quadrant are On the other hand, GaN transistors can also conduct in the reverse direction when the drain-source voltage is higher than the biasing voltage by at least the threshold voltage. The reverse characteristic of GaN i FET Transistor Basics, Construction, Symbols, Characteristics Curves, and Types June 12, 2021 May 23, 2021 by Michal FET is an electronics component that is used in many electronic circuits and appliances Here we will learn static characteristics of SCR theory in detail. Introduction. SCR (silicon controlled amplifier) is a solid state device like a transistor and it has similar characteristics as thyratron tube. SCR or thyristor is a semiconductor device consists of P-n-p-n structure. SCr has four layer and three junctions IGBT is a short form of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor, combination of Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) and Metal oxide Field effect transistor (MOS-FET).It's is a semiconductor device used for switching related applications. As IGBT is a combination of MOSFET and Transistor, it has advantages of the both transistors and MOSFET.MOSFET has advantages of high switching speed with high. For Transistor BC 107: Max Collector Current = 0.1A; V CEO max = 50V; Circuit Diagram: h - Parameter model of CE transistor: Pin assignment of Transistor: View from side of pins. View from top of casing. Operation: The basic circuit diagram for studying input characteristics is shown in the circuit diagram

The static voltage current characteristics of GTO are similar to SCR except that the latching current of GTO is larger (about 2 A) as compared to SCR (around 100-500 mA). The gate drive circuitry with switching characteristics is given in Fig. 43 and Fig. 44 Characteristics of an NPN transistor in common emitter configuration. The three important characteristics of a transistor in any mode are (i) input characteristics (ii) output characteristics and (iii) transfer characterstics. The circuit to study the characteristic curves of NPN transistor in common emitter mode is as shown in Fig

Static Characteristics of MOSFET - MCQs with answers. Q1. The input current of JFET and MOSFET are basically the leakage currents of ______ & ______ respectively. Q2. How is the layer of P-substrate, that intimate the provision of channel for electrons by touching substrate to metal -oxide film with the sementic behaviour of N-channel, can be. MOSFET CHARACTERISTICS AND APPLICATIONS Objective In this experiment you will study the i-v characteristics of an MOS transistor. You will use the MOSFET as a variable resistor and as a switch. BACKGROUND The MOS (metal-oxide- semiconductor) transistor (or MOSFET) is the basic building bloc Properly identify the Source, Drain and Gate terminals of the transistor. Result: Drain and Transfer characteristics of a FET are studied. Outcomes: Students are able to. analyze the Drain and transfer characteristics of FET in Common Source configuration. calculate the parameters transconductance (g m), drain resistance (r d) and amplification. Output Characteristic: Output characteristics of a transistor gives the relationship between output current and output voltage for constant input current. 2 V-I characteristics in cb configuration 3 Input characteristicsThe input characteristic is a curve plotted between IE and VEB. At constant base voltage VCB In this paper, we investigated the influence of doping a GaN buffer with iron Fe and carbon C on the static characteristics of DC normally open HEMT AlGaN/AlN /GaN transistors, as well as on their high-frequency RF characteristics. The simulation showed that the high-frequency characteristics of the transistor in which the buffer layer is not doped with iron or carbon changed little when the.

A Bipolar Junction Transistor (also known as a BJT or BJT Transistor) is a three-terminal semiconductor device consisting of two p-n junctions which are able to amplify or magnify a signal. It is a current controlled device. The three terminals of the BJT are the base, the collector and the emitter. A BJT is a type of transistor that uses both. The static characteristics (a) Transfer Characteristics The source terminal S is taken as common terminal, as usual, between the input and output of a MOSFET. This characteristic shows the variation of drain current I D as a function of gate- source voltage VGS.The VGST (threshold voltage) of a MOSFET is an important metric

The static characteristic points out a steady-state where the transistor behaves as a resistor. If the dose rate is sufficient, it can bring the transistor to the same steady-state. In both cases, this steady-state is reached after the same physical process: conduction of the emitter-base junction, shift of the electric field towards the NN<SUP. Fig. 3 - Two transistor Analogy of Thyristor. Here, the flow of reverse current is blocked until a breakdown voltage is applied. After breakdown voltage, it starts to conduct without the application of gate signal. This is one of the negative characteristics of Thyristors as it triggers into conduction by a reverse break over voltage 2 home work Fig. 2 the static characteristics of the field effect transistor are presented. 1. Calculate the transistor parameters at the operating point: (Ugsa, Upsa) 2. Represent the transmission characteristic of the transistor corresponding to the output voltage at the operating point. 3 The output characteristics of this transistor show graph between Ic and Vce. For finding intersecting points of load line with X-axis and Y-axis we take one by one Ic=0 and then Vce=0. First, we take Ic= 0 so that. Vce = Vcc. This value of point B will be Vcc. If we take Vce=0 then Input Characteristics: For p-n-p transistor, the input current is the emitter current (I E) and the input voltage is the collector base voltage (V CB ). As the emitter - base junction is forward biased, therefore the graph of I E Vs V EB is similar to the forward characteristics of a p - n diode. I E increases for fixed V EB when V CB.

### Bipolar Transistor Tutorial, The BJT Transisto

So the input characteristics are same as the forward characteristics of a normal pn junction diode. The cut in voltage of a silicon transistor is 0.7 volts and germanium transistor is 0.3 volts. In our case, it is a silicon transistor characteristics of the Products and external components, including transient characteristics, as well as static characteristics. 2. You agree that application notes, reference designs, and associated data and information contained in this document are presented only as guidance for Products use Static Characteristics of a JFET We will consider the following two characteristics: (i) drain characteristic: It gives relation between ID and VDS for different values of VGS (which is called running variable). (ii) transfer characteristic: It gives relation between ID and VGS for different values of VDS The circuit to study the static characteristics of an NPN transistor in the common emitter mode is given in Figure 9.30. The bias supply voltages VBB and VCC bias the base-emitter junction and collectoremitter junction respectively. The junction potential at the base-emitter is represented as VBE and the collector-emitter as VCE Jul 30, 2021 - Static Characteristics of a transistor in CE configuration - Notes Electrical Engineering (EE) Notes | EduRev is made by best teachers of Electrical Engineering (EE). This document is highly rated by Electrical Engineering (EE) students and has been viewed 403 times

CHAPTERVI NEGATP.^RESISTANCECHA^ACT!^RI'^ICS 16 laGeneral•••• 16 2,Ilnenrao?:nertanalysis 18 Cut-offregion 19 4,Trarnfentreclc-20 5,Saturationrecrlon 22 6,OraD'lealau'irr.nrv 24 7,Loadeffects 25 P.PracticalmonostRVleclrci:!t 26 9,Practice]blataMecircuit 27 10.Practicalastablocircuit 2R 11,Sinusoidaloscillators 29 CHAPTERVII ^REQTTENCYRESPONSE 31 1*<^enoral ?1 2,Physicalas'oects 3 Transistor Operation and Characteristic i-v curves The three terminals of the transistors and the two junctions, present us with multiple operating regimes. In order to distinguish these regimes we have to look at the i-v characteristics of the device. The most important characteristic of the BJT is the plot of the collector current, IC, versu transistor static characteristic sound ,transistor static characteristic pronunciation, how to pronounce transistor static characteristic, click to play the pronunciation audio of transistor static characteristic

### Power Transistor : Structure, Operation, & VI Characteristic

transistor static characteristic 這是一個臨時條目列出關於 transistor static characteristic 的相關資訊，因為字典百科目前沒有這個字詞的條目。 登入 或 創建一個新帳號 以開始編輯 transistor static characteristic 條目� Transistor common base circuit configuration. For both NPN and PNP circuits, it can be seen that for the common base amplifier circuit, the input is applied to the emitter, and the output is taken from the collector. The common terminal for both circuits is the base. The base is grounded for the signal although for biassing reasons, the DC. theory and lecture notes of static characteristics i all along with the key concepts of ideal inverter, logic voltages, drive capability, noise immunity, switching speed and bipolar transistor switch. tutorsglobe offers homework help, assignment help and tutor's assistance on static characteristics i Jul 15, 2020 - Visit the post for more Static transfer characteristic 0V<U i<0,65V, T 1 on, T 2 off, U e = V CC - R2·IR2 - UBE(T4) - VD, UBE(T4) =V D=0,75V, I R2 ≈IB(T4) = I OH /(ßN+1), U e=3,4V, on AB segment. 0,65V<U i<1,3V, T 2 starts conducting, going into forward active region. Current gain for transistor T 2 over segment BC is: α≈-R2/R 3. T 4 repeater, T 3 off, state.  Table 6.4 gives the static characteristics before and after application of the DC + EM stress. The application of 4 hours of DC + EM stresses causes significant degradations of the characteristics of the HEMT transistor. The maximum currents of the drain and gain are reduced, respectively, by 128 mA and 2.8 dB STATIC CHARACTERISTICS STATIC CHARACTERISTICS transfer characteristic of the transistor in grounded emitter (input to base). The transfer characteristic in grounded base (input to emitter) shows I. plotted against I. (Fig. 4). Non -linearity Distortion Any non -linearity in the transfer characteristic gives rise to non characteristics of the Products and external components, including transient characteristics, as well as static characteristics. 2. You agree that application notes, reference designs, and associated data and information contained in this document RYM002N05 : Transistors. Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) Basics Abdus Sattar, IXYS Corporation 7 IXAN0063 Transfer Characteristics The transfer characteristic is defined as the variation of ICE with VGE values at different temperatures, namely, 25oC, 125oC, and -40oC. A typical transfer characteristic is shown in Figure 6 Keywords: insulated gate bipolar transistors, static induct ion thyristors, currentvoltage characteristics, com parative analysis DOI: 10.3103/S106837121502004

DC CHARACTERISTICS OF BJT 1 Laboratory Exercise 2 DC characteristics of Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT) The aim of the exercise The main aim of this laboratory exercise is to understand principles of operation of Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT). It covers the measurements of static and small signal parameters. Background Banadaki, Y.M.; Srivastava, A. Investigation of the width-dependent static characteristics of graphene nanoribbon field effect transistors using non-parabolic quantum-based model. Solid-State Electron. 2015, 111, 80-90. [Google Scholar] Kliros, G.S. Scaling Effects on the Gate Capacitance of Graphene Nanoribbon Transistors To study the characteristics of a common emitter npn (or pnp) transistor and to find out the values of current and voltage gains. Apparatus An n-p-n transistor, a three volt battery, a 30 volt battery, two high resistance rheostats, one 0-3 volt voltmeter, one 0-30 volt voltmeter, one 0-50 μA micro-ammeter, one 0-50 mA milli-ammeter, two one.     7.2.1 Voltage Transfer Characteristics The voltage transfer characteristic (VTC) gives the response of the inverter circuit, , to specific input voltages, . It is a figure of merit for the static behavior of the inverter. The gate-source voltage of the n-channel MOSFET is equal to while the gate-source voltage of the p-channel MOSFET calculates a The most important characteristics of CMOS are low static power utilization, huge noise immunity. When the single transistor from the pair of MOSFET transistor is switched OFF then the series combination uses significant power throughout switching among the two stated like ON & OFF The static characteristic of diac is as shown in graph We may think of Diac being equivalent to a bipolar transistor with no base connection. Diac can be turned on by either a positive or negative half cycle of an ac voltage. For the positive cycle of ac voltage, if the applied voltage is less than the forward breakover voltage a very small. Basic Electronics - MOSFET. FETs have a few disadvantages like high drain resistance, moderate input impedance and slower operation. To overcome these disadvantages, the MOSFET which is an advanced FET is invented. MOSFET stands for Metal Oxide Silicon Field Effect Transistor or Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor Switch-On Transients And Static Characteristics Of Polymorphous And Amorphous Silicon Thin-Film Transistor - Volume 762. Skip to main content Accessibility help We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites